Dr. Waqar ul Qounain

Dr. Waqar ul Qounain

Address: Admin Block, Punjab University College of Information Technology, University of The Punjab, Allama Iqbal Campus, Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam (The Mall), 54000 Lahore, Pakistan.
Phone: +92.42.111923923-ext-413 Fax: +92.42.92120905
E-mail: s w jaffry at pucit dot edu dot pk
Internet Footprint: LinkedIn, Mendeley, ResearchGate, Nature Network, Microsoft Academic Research, The DBLP Computer Science Bibliography,

Introduction:

I am an Assistant Professor at Punjab University College of Information Technology, University of The Punjab Lahore, Pakistan. I completed my PhD under the supervision of prof. dr. Jan Treur and dr. Mark Hoogendoorn in 2011. My PhD research focus was on the Analysis and Validation of Models for Trust Dynamics. This research is applied in the EU funded project SOCIONICAL. My research interests include Agent Systems, Computational Modelling, Modelling of Human Cognitive Dynamics, Model and Data Driven Social Simulations, and Text Mining.

For more details about me, see my CV upadted 05-01-2015.


Publications:

Names of the authors are in alphabetical order and all can be regarded as having made a comparable contribution, exceptions are marked with *

    Books and Book Chapters

  1. Arts, M., Avital, M., Bennamar, K., Besselink, T., Boog, W., Collard, P., Colton, S., Corneille, S., Germans, D., Gielink, S., Hanson, A., Hanson, D., Hekkert, P., Hoekendijk, C., Hoorn, J. F., Jaffry, S. W., Jensenius, H., Krabbendam, D., Kresin, F., Kuipers, A., Kuipers, T., Lee, M., Lindenberg, V., Lowe, J., Straffon, L. Miller, A. I., Molella, A., Olthof, T., Ott, C., Otte, M., Poelman, W., Pontier, M., Postma, A., Roosendaal, L., Rump, V., Runco, M., Smeulders, A., Taylor, R., van den Herik, J., van der Kooij, K., van der Sloot, J., van der Veen, O., van Dijk, G., van Gorsel, P., van Rosmalen, B., van Uden, J., Werner, J., Organic Creativity and Physics Within, John Benjamins Publishing, 2013. online
    • Title: "Organic Creativity and Physics Within."
      Authors: Arts, M., Avital, M., Bennamar, K., Besselink, T., Boog, W., Collard, P., Colton, S., Corneille, S., Germans, D., Gielink, S., Hanson, A., Hanson, D., Hekkert, P., Hoekendijk, C., Hoorn, J. F., Jaffry, S. W., Jensenius, H., Krabbendam, D., Kresin, F., Kuipers, A., Kuipers, T., Lee, M., Lindenberg, V., Lowe, J., Straffon, L. Miller, A. I., Molella, A., Olthof, T., Ott, C., Otte, M., Poelman, W., Pontier, M., Postma, A., Roosendaal, L., Rump, V., Runco, M., Smeulders, A., Taylor, R., van den Herik, J., van der Kooij, K., van der Sloot, J., van der Veen, O., van Dijk, G., van Gorsel, P., van Rosmalen, B., van Uden, J., Werner, J.

      Abstract
      A group of international top scientists from a diversity of disciplines sat together for five days with artists, designers, and entrepreneurs to develop a trans-disciplinary theory of creativity. Organic Creativity and the Physics Within assumes that creativity is a quality of nature visible in physics as well as in psychology, its basis being combinatorics, coincidence, complementarity, and fractal emergence. The authors prompt a mechanism cutting through particle physics, perception, psychology, and culminating into playfulness. Organic Creativity and the Physics Within connects us to the universality of nature's creativeness.
  2. Jaffry, S. W., Analysis and Validation of Models for Trust Dynamics, PhD Thesis, VU University Amsterdam , The Netherlands, 2011. online Jaffry, S. W., Analysis and Validation of Models for Trust Dynamics.
    • Title: "Analysis and Validation of Models for Trust Dynamics."
      Authors: Jaffry, S. W.

      Abstract
      Technological advancements in the last century have opened numerous venues and great challenges. The use of machines and devices in everyday human life has assigned them a new societal role. Envisioning the machine to act as an educator, helper, supporter, mediator, negotiator, moderator, doctor, and a daily companion is the debate of the day. Emergence of such a techno-human society has brought many challenges to technologists and social scientists. A main question that still stands is whether such a societal setup will be stable. One of the crucial factors for such a setup to be successful is the humans’ levels of trust in machines. To make such artifacts more human-aware with respect to their trust, dynamical models of trust should be designed, verified, validated and embedded into them. These models will enable the machine to estimate human trust and adapt accordingly. In existing literature there are several computational models of trust which silently assume a rational basis of trust. This performance oriented, system-theoretic view of trust is not the true representation of human behaviour. As reported in many recent studies humans usually do not behave rationally under the influence of personal perception, feeling and biases. This notion of trust is called human-based trust in this dissertation. Both system-theoretic and human-based trust models have their own domain of applications in the current socio-technological world. In these days interactions in the socio-technological world can be classified into three types, namely, human-human, human-machine and machine-machine. System-theoretic trust has a wide application for cases when two autonomous machines communicate or interact with each other. These machines do not have human aspects. Hence, the performance-oriented view of utility, past experiences and institutions enforcements can provide them enough to trust on each other or not. Different from a machine-machine view of interaction, human-based trust has an application in both human-machine and human-human interactions. Hence, understanding of human trust dynamics in these perspectives is necessary for progress and effective utilization of current socio-technological advancements. This dissertation deals with modelling of human-based trust and validation of these models, which is an essential component for human-human and human-machine interaction posed under the challenges of the postmodern human society.

    Journal

  3. Aslam, L., Sarwar, S., Yousaf, M. M., Jaffry, S. W., Cycle Discrepancy of d-Colorable Graphs. In: Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore. (PJEAS) , , vol. 18. 2016, pp. 50-55. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Cycle Discrepancy of d-Colorable Graphs."
      Authors: Aslam, L., Sarwar, S., Yousaf, M. M., Jaffry, S. W.

      Abstract
      We show that cycle discrepancy of a 3-colorable graph, G, on at least five vertices is bounded by 2×⌈⌊n/3⌋/2⌉; that is, cycdisc(G) ≤2×⌈⌊n/3⌋/2⌉. We also show that this bound is best possible by constructing 3-colorable graphs, on at least five vertices for which cycle discrepancy is at least 2×⌈⌊n/3⌋/2⌉. Let Gt be the set of 3-colorable graphs on n ≥ 5 vertices with t vertices in the smallest color class. We show that for a graph, G from Gt, cycdisc(G) ≤2×⌈t/2⌉. Furthermore a graph G' exists in Gt with large cycle discrepancy, such that cycdisc (G') ≥2×⌈t/2⌉ for t ≥ 1. We also construct such d-colorable graphs for d > 3 that have maximum possible cycle discrepancy.
  4. Mubasher, M. M., Jaffry, S.W., Incorporation of the Driver’s Personality Profile in an Agent Model. In: PROMET – Traffic&Transportation, (PTT) , vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 505-514, 2015. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Incorporation of the Driver’s Personality Profile in an Agent Model."
      Authors: Mubasher, M. M., Jaffry, S.W.

      Abstract
      Urban traffic flow is a complex system. Behavior of an individual driver can have butterfly effect which can become root cause of an emergent phenomenon such as congestion or accident. Interaction of drivers with each other and the surrounding environment forms the dynamics of traffic flow. Hence global effects of traffic flow depend upon the behavior of each individual driver. Due to several applications of driver models in serious games, urban traffic planning and simulations, study of a realistic driver model is important. Hence cognitive models of a driver agent are required. In order to address this challenge concepts from cognitive science and psychology are employed to design a computational model of driver cognition which is capable of incorporating law abidance and social norms using big five personality profile.
  5. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., Maanen, P.P. van, and Treur, J., Design and Validation of a Relative Trust Model. In: Knowledge Base Systems, (KBS) , vol. 57, Elsevier, 2014, pp. 81–94. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Design and Validation of a Relative Trust Model."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., Maanen, P.P. van, and Treur, J.

      Abstract
      When considering intelligent agents that interact with humans, having an idea of the trust levels of the human, for example in other agents or services, can be of great importance. Most models of human trust that exist assume trust in one trustee is independent of trust in another trustee. The model introduced here addresses so-called relative trust. The idea of relative trust is that trust in a certain trustee not only depends on the experiences with that trustee, but also on trustees that are perceived competitors of that trustee. Such models for relative trust contain parameters to represent the specific dependency between trust for different trustees. In order to tailor the model towards a specific human, dedicated parameter estimation techniques are used. The validation shows that such a model for relative trust is able to predict human trust based behaviour significantly better compared to a benchmark model.
  6. Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Agent-Based and Population-Based Modelling of Trust Dynamics. In: Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence, (TCCI), vol. 9, Springer Verlag, 2013, pp 124-151. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Agent-Based and Population-Based Modelling of Trust Dynamics."
      Authors: Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.

      Abstract
      Trust is usually viewed at an individual level in the sense of an agent having trust in a certain trustee. It can also be considered at a population level, in the sense of how much trust for a certain trustee exists in a given population or group of agents. The dynamics of trust states over time can be modelled per individual in an agent-based manner. These individual trust states can be aggregated to obtain the trust state of the population. However, in an alternative way trust dynamics can be modelled from a population perspective as well. Such a population-level model is much more efficient computationally. In this paper both ways of modelling are investigated and it is analyzed how close they can approximate each other. This is done both by simulation experiments and by mathematical analysis. It is shown that the approximation can be reasonably accurate, and for larger numbers of agents even quite accurate.
  7. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., Maanen, P.P. van, and Treur, J., Modelling Biased Human Trust Dynamics. In: Web Intelligence and Agent Systems: An International Journal.(WIAS), vol. 11, no. 1, IOS Press, 2013, pp. 1-21. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Modelling Biased Human Trust Dynamics."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., Maanen, P.P. van, and Treur, J.

      Abstract
      Within human trust related behaviour, according to the literature from the domains of Psychology and Social Sciences often non-rational behaviour can be observed. Current trust models that have been developed typically do not incorporate non-rational elements in the trust formation dynamics. In order to enable agents that interact with humans to have a good estimation of human trust, and take this into account in their behaviour, trust models that incorporate such human aspects are a necessity. A specific non-rational element in humans is that they are often biased in their behaviour. In this paper, models for human trust dynamics are presented incorporating human biases. In order to show that they more accurately describe human behaviour, they have been evaluated against empirical data, which shows that the models perform significantly better.
  8. Bosse, T., M., Jaffry, S.W., Siddiqui, G.F., and J. Treur, Comparative Analysis of Agent-Based and Population-Based Modelling in Epidemics and Economics. In: Multiagent and Grid Systems, An International Journal,(MAGS), vol. 8, no. 3, IOS Press, 2012, pp. 223-255. DOI (preliminary version) Bosse, T., Jaffry, S.W., Siddiqui, G.F., and J. Treur, Comparative Analysis of Agent-Based and Population-Based Modelling in Epidemics and Economics
    • Title: "Comparative Analysis of Agent-Based and Population-Based Modelling in Epidemics and Economics."
      Authors: Bosse, T., Jaffry, S.W., Siddiqui, G.F., and J. Treur

      Abstract
      This paper addresses comparative evaluation of population-based simulation in comparison to agent-based simulation for different numbers of agents. Population-based simulation, such as for example in the classical approaches to predator-prey modelling and modelling of epidemics, has computational advantages over agent-based modelling with large numbers of agents. Therefore the latter approaches can be considered useful only when the results are expected to deviate from the results of population-based simulation, and are considered more realistic. However, there is sometimes also a silent assumption that for larger numbers of agents, agent-based simulations approximate population-based simulations, which would indicate that agent-based simulation just can be replaced by population-based simulation. The paper evaluates such assumptions by two detailed comparative case studies: one in epidemics, and one in economical context. The former case study addresses the spread of an infectious disease over a population. The latter case study addresses the interplay between individual greed as a psychological concept and global economical concepts. It is shown that under certain conditions agent-based and population-based simulations may show similar results, but not always.
  9. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Cognitive and Neural Modeling of Dynamics of Trust in Competitive Trustees. In: Cognitive Systems Research Journal.(CSR), vol. 14, Elsevier B. V., 2012, pp. 60-83. DOI (preliminary version) Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Cognitive and Neural Modeling of Dynamics of Trust in Competitive Trustees
    • Title: "Cognitive and Neural Modeling of Dynamics of Trust in Competitive Trustees."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.

      Abstract
      Trust dynamics can be modeled in relation to experiences. In this paper two models to represent human trust dynamics are introduced, namely a model on a cognitive level and a neural model. These models each include a number of parameters, providing the possibility to express certain relations between trustees. The behavior of each of the models is further analyzed by means of simulation experiments and formal verification techniques. Thereafter, both models have been compared to see whether they can produce patterns that are comparable. As each of the models has its own specific set of parameters, with values that depend on the type of person modeled, such a comparison is nontrivial. To address this, a special comparison approach is introduced, based on mutual mirroring of the models in each other. More specifically, for a given parameter values set for one model, by an automated parameter estimation procedure the most optimal values for the parameter values of the other model are determined in order to show the same behavior. Roughly spoken the results are that the models can mirror each other up to an accuracy of around 90%.
  10. Bosse, T., Both, F., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., Lambalgen, R. van, Oorburg, R., Sharpanskykh, R., Treur, J., and Vos, M. de, Design and Validation of a Model for a Human's Functional State and Performance. In: International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing,(IJMSSC), vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 413-443. World Scientific Publishing, 2011. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Design and Validation of a Model for a Human's Functional State and Performance."
      Authors: Bosse, T., Both, F., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., Lambalgen, R. van, Oorburg, R., Sharpanskykh, R., Treur, J., and Vos, M. de.

      Abstract
      This paper presents a computational model of the dynamics of a human?s functional state in relation to task performance and environment. It can be used in intelligent systems that support humans in demanding circumstances. The model takes task demand and situational aspects as input and determines internal factors such as the experienced pressure, exhaustion and motivation, and how they affect performance. Simulation experiments under different parameter settings pointed out that the model is able to produce realistic behavior of different types of personalities. Moreover, by a mathematical analysis the equilibria of the model have been determined, and by automated checking a number of expected properties of the model have been confirmed. In addition to the internal validation of the model, an experiment has been designed for the purpose of external validation addressing the estimation of the for the application relevant aspects of the human process. Output from the experiment like personality characteristics and performance quality has been used to perform estimation of the parameters of the model. By the parameter estimation a set of parameter values has been identified by which an adequate representation of a person?s functional state when performing a task is achieved.
  11. Bosse, T., Gerritsen, C., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Agent-Based versus Population-Based Simulation of Displacement of Crime: A Comparative Study. In: Web Intelligence and Agent Systems Journal, (WAIS), vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 147-160. IOS Press, 2011. DOI (preliminary version) Bosse, T., Gerritsen, C., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Agent-Based versus Population-Based Simulation of Displacement of Crime: A Comparative Study
    • Title: "Agent-Based versus Population-Based Simulation of Displacement of Crime: A Comparative Study."
      Authors: Bosse, T., Gerritsen, C., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.

      Abstract
      Central research questions addressed within Criminology are how the geographical displacement of crime can be understood, explained, and predicted. The process of crime displacement is usually explained by referring to the interaction of three types of agents: criminals, passers-by, and guardians. Most existing simulation models of this process take a 'local' perspective, i.e., they are agent-based. However, when the number of agents considered becomes large, more 'global' approaches, such as population-based simulation have computational advantages over agent-based simulation. This article presents both an agent-based and a population-based simulation model of crime displacement, and reports a comparative evaluation of the two models. In addition, an approach is put forward to analyse the behaviour of both models by means of formal techniques. The results suggest that under certain conditions, population-based models approximate agent-based models, at least in the domain under investigation.

    International Conferences and Workshop Proceedings

  12. *Fatima, B., Jaffry, S. W., Mubasher, M. M., Sherwani, A., Human Acceptance of Autonomous Social Media Agent. In: Proceedings of The 4th International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud, (FiCloud-2016), Vienna, (Austria), the IEEE Computer Scoiety Press, 2016, pp. 200-205. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Human Acceptance of Autonomous Social Media Agent."
      Authors: Fatima, B., Jaffry, S. W., Mubasher, M. M., Sherwani, A.,

      Abstract
      On the advent of Web 2.0 online social media has emerged as a paramount vehicle for information sharing, business and entertainment. In order to harness this technology in a seamless and effective manner we need intelligent artifacts which can glue various stockholders and fulfill their information need pervasively. Hence, it is the time to design autonomous agents that would be able to take part in active social communication on social media like human beings. To this main question is whether people will accept and trust such systems in their environment or not. So, in this research an autonomous agent is designed that interacts with human beings and perform permissible social actions on the Facebook. Two types of experiments are conducted to compute the agent's expected level of acceptance by human and actual human acceptance of the agent. As the samples are collected from two different populations hence Student's T Test is performed to determine if two sets of data are significantly different from each other. 'Mean Difference' between both populations is 0.034 which shows that if an agent is capable of performing human-like social interaction it increases the human acceptance of the social agent.
  13. Mubasher, M. M., Jaffry, S. W., Systematic Literature Review of Vehicular Traffic Flow Simulators. In: Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Open Source Software Computing (OSSCOM 2015), Jordan, September, 10-13, 2015, to appear. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Systematic Literature Review of Vehicular Traffic Flow Simulators."
      Authors: Mubasher, M. M., Jaffry, S. W.,

      Abstract
      In modern world means of communication and commutation plays a significant role in collective social growth. It is a well observed phenomenon that due to concentration of educational, career, and business opportunities along with easy access to services, population is increasing in urban centers. Increasing population in urban centers is posing many challenges to urban managers and engineers. Ensuring smooth vehicular traffic flow is very important among them. It includes maintenance of current traffic infrastructure, optimal deployment of traffic regulators and cost effective extension of existing infrastructure which requires experimentation of different what-if scenarios. Urban traffic is among those systems which cannot be interrupted in order to experiment hence simulation is most suitable option for policy makers to perform different what-if experiments. Choice of vehicular traffic flow simulator play a vital role in experimenting these what-if scenarios. This paper presents a systematic review of existing vehicular traffic flow simulators proposed and used in research literature. This review includes type of license i.e. the simulator is closed or open source and freeware or proprietary, usage of the simulator i.e. what type of modeling and simulation tasks can be performed using the simulator, developer of the simulator, and citations of the simulator in research literature.
  14. *Shoaib, H., Jaffry, S. W., A Survey of Augmented Reality. In: Proceedings of XIII International Conference on Virtual and Augmented Reality (ICVAR 2015), Singapore, January, 8-9, 2015, to appear.
    • Title: "A Survey of Augmented Reality."
      Authors: Shoaib, H., Jaffry, S. W.

      Abstract
      This paper is a brief survey in the field of Augmented Reality. Augmented Reality is a representation of the world in which real and virtual objects are combined, or the surrounding environment is augmented with virtual objects in real-time to enhance user experience. The survey describes the goals and characteristics of an Augmented Reality System through a novel process providing up-to-date research results in the field. We describe the breadth of applications in the area, real-time solutions to the registration problem, and potential future work for improvement of user experience towards Augmented Reality Systems. This survey provides the only overview of the complete area since the first comprehensive survey was done in 1993 – despite later incomplete attempts.
  15. *Haris, M., Jaffry S. W., An Object Based Conceptual Framework for Location Based Social Networking. In: : International Workshop on Location-Based Social Networks (LBSN'13), associated with the 21st ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems. (ACM SIGSPATIAL'13), Orlando, Florida, (USA), the Association of Computing Machinery, 2013, pp. 15-23.
    • Title: "An Object Based Conceptual Framework for Location Based Social Networking."
      Authors: Haris, M., Jaffry S. W.

      Abstract
      In the current technological era the value of information sharing has emerged enormously while the contemporary phenomenon of Social Networking (SN) has provided an avenue for sharing information. The ubiquitous nature of SN services has focused mainly on “Who”, “What” and “When”, while the “Where” dimension has mainly been neglected. Only recently after realizing that “Where” dimension of information is present in almost 80% of raw data, the SN platforms have started utilizing the location based information. This has led to the emergence of a new field, namely Location Based Social Networking (LBSN). A comprehensive literature review of LBSN reveals several shortcomings in both, the research and industrial implementation. One of the primary weaknesses is that the location in LBSN is being assumed and treated just as an auxiliary part of information (post, pictures, videos etc.) and not as a core element. This treatment undermines the true significance of location based information in LBSN. To overcome this limitation, current paper proposes an object based conceptual framework in which location reforms itself from a mere non-compulsory attribute of information to a completely new form i.e. an object. The location as an object will have its own attributes and associated behaviors. When this new location based information object is integrated into a LBSN platform, the interactions between location and human objects instigates, which resultantly exhibits new aspects of social and spatial communication not witnessed previously in LBSN.
  16. *Saeed, A. R., Jaffry S. W., Information Mining from Islamic Scriptures. In: Proceedings of the The 4th Workshop on South and Southeast Asian Natural Language Processing (WSSANLP)in conjunction with 6th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (IJCNLP'13). (WSSANLP, IJCNLP'13), Nagoya (Japan), the Asian Federation of Natural Language Processing, 2013, to appear.
    • Title: "Information Mining from Islamic Scriptures."
      Authors: Saeed, A. R., Jaffry S. W.

      Abstract
      There are billions of believers of various religions in the world and Islam is the second largest religion having 1.6 billion followers. The primary written sources of religious beliefs and practices of Muslims are the Quran and the Hadith (saying and practices of their prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him). Written text of the Quran and the Hadith books is of manageable size and hence state of the art text mining techniques can easily be applied on it. In this paper first a comprehensive review of existing applications offering various type of the Quran and the Hadith information retrieval is presented then a framework based on text mining techniques is presented. Finally an application is developed to demonstrate the Quran and the Hadith information retrieval framework. This application is evaluated with the help of an end user assessment questionnaire. It is recorded that the end users have observed salient advantages of the designed application.
  17. *Latif, I., Jaffry S. W., A Survey on Trust Evaluation Mechanisms for Wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media (SocialNLP) in conjunction with 6th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (IJCNLP'13). (SocialNLP, IJCNLP'13), Nagoya (Japan), the Asian Federation of Natural Language Processing, 2013, to appear.
    • Title: "A Survey on Trust Evaluation Mechanisms for Wikipedia."
      Authors: Latif, I., Jaffry S. W.

      Abstract
      Wikipedia is the wellnigh successful and most popular free encyclopedia developed by many editors in collaborative manner. It provides multitude of opportunities for online large scale knowledge sharing between virtual communities by letting the viewer to create and edit articles directly in the web browser. Information on Wikipedia is expanding largely, but the increase in quantity is not proportional to quality of the content. The cursory observer of Wikipedia may not be able to differentiate between the good and the bad quality of the content. Despite the success of Wikipedia, trust on Wikipedia content is still questioned because of its open editing model. In this paper primarily the challenges for trust evaluation mechanisms, caused by the significant characteristics of Wikipedia’s knowledge base are discussed. Existing Wikipedia trust evaluation models are comprehensively sur-veyed and key issues related to these are highlighted. Finally based on this study new dimensions for effective trust evaluation me-chanisms are proposed, which are aimed to setup clear goals for future research in this area.
  18. *Mansoor, F., Rohail, M., Jaffry S. W., Empirical Validation for Human Decision Making, In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Human Aspects in Ambient Intelligence in International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology (HAI-IAT'13). (HAI'13, IAT'13), Atlanta, Gorgia (USA), IEEE Computer Society Press, 2013, to appear.
    • Title: "Empirical Validation for Human Decision Making."
      Authors: Mansoor, F., Rohail, M., Jaffry S. W.

      Abstract
      In current postmodern socio-technical world when machines are everywhere a harmonious relationship between man and machine is essential. The harmony of this relation and survival of this socio-technical world can only be guaranteed if machines can understand human state of mind and can act accordingly. To this, several computational models of human cognition has been presented in literature while very few efforts have been made to validate them. In current paper a model of trust based human decision making in dynamic environment is taken from the literature and validated against human decision traces generated through computer based experiments. The results of this experiment shows that model under study can be trusted as a computational representative of human decision making process with a satisfactory level.
  19. Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Modelling Trust for Communicating Agents: Agent-Based and Population-Based Perspectives. In: Jedrzejowicz, P., Nguyen, N.T., Hoang, K. (eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computational Collective Intelligence,. (ICCCI'11), Gdynia, (Poland), Part I. Lecture Notes in Artifical Intelligence, vol. 6922. Springer Verlag, 2011, pp. 366-377.
    • Title: "Modelling Trust for Communicating Agents: Agent-Based and Population-Based Perspectives."
      Authors: Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.,

      Abstract
      This paper presents an exploration of the differences between agent-based and population-based models for trust dynamics. This exploration is based on both a large variety of simulation experiments and a mathematical analysis of the equilibria of the two types of models. The outcomes show that the differences between the models are not very substantial, and become less for larger numbers of agents.
  20. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., Maanen, P.P. van, and Treur, J., Modeling and Validation of Biased Human Trust. In: Boissier, O., et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the 11th IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology,. (IAT'11), Lyon, (France), IEEE Computer Society Press, 2011, pp. 256-263.
    • Title: "Modeling and Validation of Biased Human Trust."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., Maanen, P.P. van, and Treur, J.,

      Abstract
      When considering intelligent agents that interact with humans, having an idea of the trust levels of the human, for example in other agents or services, can be of great importance. Most models of human trust that exist, are based on some rationality assumption, and biased behavior is not represented, whereas a vast literature in Cognitive and Social Sciences indicates that humans often exhibit non-rational, biased behavior with respect to trust. This paper reports how some variations of biased human trust models have been designed, analyzed and validated against empirical data. The results show that such biased trust models are able to predict human trust significantly better.
  21. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Maanen, P.-P. van., Validation and Verification of Agent Models for Trust: Independent compared to Relative Trust. Proceedings of the 5th IFIP WG 11.11 International Conference on Trust Management.. (TM'11), Copenhagen, (Denmark), June 29th - July 1st, 2011. International Federation of Information Processing, Advances in Information and Communication Technology Series, Springer Verlag, 2011, vol. 358, pp. 35-50.
    • Title: "Validation and Verification of Agent Models for Trust: Independent compared to Relative Trust."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Maanen, P.-P. van.,

      Abstract
      In this paper, the results of a validation experiment for two existing computational trust models describing human trust are reported. One model uses experiences of performance in order to estimate the trust in different trustees. The second model carries the notion of relative trust. The idea of relative trust is that trust in a certain trustee not solely depends on the experiences with that trustee, but also on trustees that are considered competitors of that trustee. In order to validate the models, parameter adaptation has been used to tailor the models towards human behavior. A comparison between the two models has also been made to see whether the notion of relative trust describes human trust behavior in a more accurate way. The results show that taking trust relativity into account indeed leads to a higher accuracy of the trust model. Finally, a number of assumptions underlying the two models are verified using an automated verification tool.
  22. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Exploration and Exploitation in Adaptive Trust-Based Decision Making in Dynamic Environments. In: Huang, X.J., Ghorbani, A.A., Hacid, M.-S., Yamaguchi, T. (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology,. (IAT'10), Toronto, (Canada), August 31st - September 3rd, 2010. IEEE Computer Society Press, 2010, pp. 256-260. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Exploration and Exploitation in Adaptive Trust-Based Decision Making in Dynamic Environments."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.,

      Abstract
      Trust is generally considered an important aspect in the decision making of agents. In the literature, a variety of computational models for trust have been proposed that also express how an agent can make a decision by exploiting the trust levels it has for the different options. Within such a decision making mechanism the focus is usually on a single most trusted option, which as a side effect may lead to a lack of information on the other options over time. Therefore it may sometimes be worthwhile to be more explorative in the decision making, especially to adapt to dynamic environments. In this paper an adaptive trust-based decision making model is proposed that varies the extent of exploration and exploitation in the agent's decisions. The model is evaluated and compared to other existing models by means of simulations.
  23. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Incorporating Interdependency of Trust Values in Existing Models for Trust Dynamics. In: Nishigaki, M., Josang, A., Murayama, Y., Marsh, S. (eds.), Trust Management IV, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Trust Management, Advances in Information and Communication Technology,. (TM'10), Morioka, Iwate, (Japan), June 16th - 18th, 2010. Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol. 321. Springer Verlag, 2010, pp. 263-276. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Incorporating Interdependency of Trust Values in Existing Models for Trust Dynamics."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.,

      Abstract
      Many models of trust consider the trust an agent has in another agent (the trustee) as the result of experiences with that specific agent in combination with certain personality attributes. For the case of multiple trustees, there might however be dependencies between the trust levels in different trustees. In this paper, two alternatives are described to model such dependencies: (1) development of a new trust model which incorporates dependencies explicitly, and (2) an extension of existing trust models that is able to express these interdependencies using a translation mechanism from objective experiences to subjective ones. For the latter, placing the interdependencies in the experiences enables the reuse of existing trust models that typically are based upon certain experiences over time as input. Simulation runs are performed using the two approaches, showing that both are able to generate realistic patterns of interdependent trust values.
  24. Both, F., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry. S.W., Lambalgen, R. van, Oorburg, R., Sharpanskykh, A., Treur, J., and Vos, M. de, Adaptation and Validation of an Agent Model of Functional State and Performance for Individuals. In: Yang, J.-J.; Yokoo, M.; Ito, T.; Jin, Z.; Scerri, P. (eds.), Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Principles of Practice in Multi-Agent Systems. (PRIMA'09), Nagoya, (Japan), December 13th - 16th, 2009. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, vol. 5925, Springer Verlag, 2009, pp. 595-607. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Adaptation and Validation of an Agent Model of Functional State and Performance for Individuals."
      Authors: Both, F., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry. S.W., Lambalgen, R. van, Oorburg, R., Sharpanskykh, A., Treur, J., and Vos, M. de,

      Abstract
      Human performance can seriously degrade under demanding tasks. To improve performance, agents can reason about the current state of the human, and give the most appropriate and effective support. To enable this, the agent needs a model of a specific person's functional state and performance, which should be valid, as the agent might otherwise give inappropriate advice and even worsen performance. This paper concerns the adaptation of the parameters of the existing functional state model to the individual and validation of the resulting model. First, human experiments have been designed and conducted, whereby measurements related to the model have been performed. Next, this data has been used to obtain appropriate parameter settings for the model, describing the specific subject. Finally,the model, with the tailored parameter settings, has been used to predict human behavior to investigate predictive capabilities of the model. The results have been analyzed using formal verification.
  25. Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Comparing a Cognitive and a Neural Model for Relative Trust Dynamics. In: Leung, C.S., Lee, M., and Chan, J.H. (eds.), Proceedings of 16th International Conference on Neural Information Processing. (ICONIP'09), Bangkok, (Thailand), December 1st - 5th, 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5863 Part I, Springer Verlag, 2009, pp. 72-83. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Comparing a Cognitive and a Neural Model for Relative Trust Dynamics."
      Authors: Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.,

      Abstract
      Trust dynamics can be modelled in relation to experiences. Both cognitive and neural models for trust dynamics in relation to experiences are available, but were not yet related or compared in more detail. This paper presents a comparison between a cognitive and a neural model. As each of the models has its own specific set of parameters, with values that depend on the type of person modelled, such a comparison is nontrivial. In this paper a comparison approach is presented that is based on mutual mirroring of the models in each other. More specifically, for given parameter values set for one model, by automated parameter estimation processes the most optimal values for the parameter values of the other model are determined to show the same behavior. Roughly spoken the results are that the models can mirror each other up to an accuracy of around 90%.
  26. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Modelling Trust Dynamics from a Neurological Perspective. In: Wang, R., Gu, F. (eds.), Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics II, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics. (ICCN'09), Hangzhou, (China), November 15th - 19th, 2009. Springer Verlag, 2011, pp. 523-536. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "Modelling Trust Dynamics from a Neurological Perspective."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.,

      Abstract
      Trust is often assumed to depend on experiences. Models for the dynamics of trust in relation to experiences usually have a cognitive nature, leaving affective aspects out of consideration. However, neurological findings show more and more how in mental processes cognitive and affective aspects are intertwined. In this paper, by adopting neurological theories on the role of emotions and feelings, a model for trust dynamics is introduced incorporating the relation between trust and feeling. The model makes use of a Hebbian learning principle and describes how trust does not only depend on experiences viewed as information obtained over time, but also on emotional responses and feelings related to experiences.
  27. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., An Adaptive Agent Model Estimating Human Trust in Information Sources. In: Baeza-Yates, R., Lang, J., Mitra, S., Parsons, S., Pasi, G. (eds.), Proceedings of the 9th IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology, . (IAT'09), Milan, (Italy), September 15th - 18th, 2009. IEEE Computer Society Press, 2009, pp. 458-465. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "An Adaptive Agent Model Estimating Human Trust in Information Sources."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.,

      Abstract
      For an information agent to support a human in a personalized way, having a model of the trust the human has in information sources may be essential. As humans differ a lot in their characteristics with respect to trust, a trust model crucially depends on specific personalized values for a number of parameters. This paper contributes an adaptive agent model for trust with parameters that are automatically tuned over time to a specific individual. To obtain the adaptation, four different techniques have been developed. In order to evaluate these techniques, simulations have been performed. The results of these were formally verified.
  28. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry. S.W., The Influence of Personalities upon the Dynamics of Trust and Reputation. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Secure Computing (SecureCom'09), in conjunction with the IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust, (PASSAT'09), Vancouver, (Canada), August 29th - 31st, 2009. IEEE Computer Society Press, 2009 pp. 263-270. DOI (preliminary version)
    • Title: "The Influence of Personalities upon the Dynamics of Trust and Reputation."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry. S.W.,

      Abstract
      When an agent resides in a community, the opinion of other community members concerning whether a particular individual is trustworthy or not influences the trust level of this agent. Hereby, the precise influence depends on the personality of the agent (e.g. whether he lets his opinion be influenced by others a lot). In this paper, a computational trust model which has dedicated parameters for agent personalities is applied to such a social context. A variety of different communities (containing agents with different personalities) have hereby been simulated. The resulting patterns hereof are shown in this paper. Furthermore, the simulation results are formally analyzed to show that certain patterns do occur in all different communities.
  29. Bosse, T., Gerritsen, C., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Comparison of Agent-Based and Population-Based Simulations of Displacement of Crime. In: Jain, L., Gini, M., Faltings, B.B., Terano, T., Zhang, C., Cercone, N., Cao, L. (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology, (IAT'08), Sydney, (Australia), December 9th - 12th, 2008. IEEE Computer Society Press, 2008, pp. 469-476. DOI (preliminary version) Bosse, T., Gerritsen, C., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Agent-Based and Population-Based Simulation of Displacement of Crime
    • Title: "Comparison of Agent-Based and Population-Based Simulations of Displacement of Crime."
      Authors: Bosse, T., Gerritsen, C., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.

      Abstract
      Within Criminology, the process of crime displacement is usually explained by referring to the interaction of three types of agents: criminals, passers-by, and guardians. Most existing simulation models of this process are agent-based. However, when the number of agents considered becomes large, population-based simulation has computational advantages over agent-based simulation. This paper presents both an agent-based and a population-based simulation model of crime displacement, and reports a comparative evaluation of the two models. In addition, an approach is put forward to analyse the behaviour of both models by means of formal techniques.
  30. Jaffry, S.W., Treur, J., Agent-Based and Population-Based Simulation: A Comparative Case Study for Epidemics. In: Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Modelling and Simulation,(ECMS'08), Nicosia, (Cyprus), June 3rd - 6th, 2008. European Council on Modeling and Simulation, 2008, pp. 123-130. (preliminary version) Jaffry, S.W., Treur, J., Agent-Based and Population-Based Simulation: A Comparative Case Study for Epidemics
    • Title: "Agent-Based and Population-Based Simulation: A Comparative Case Study for Epidemics."
      Authors: Jaffry, S.W., Treur, J.

      Abstract
      This paper reports a comparative evaluation of population-based simulation in comparison to agentbased simulation for different numbers of agents. Population-based simulation, such as for example in the classical approaches to predator-prey modelling and modelling of epidemics, has computational advantages over agent-based modelling with large numbers of agents. Therefore the latter approaches can be considered useful only when the results are expected to deviate from the results of population-based simulation, and are considered more realistic. However, there is sometimes also a silent assumption that for larger numbers of agents, agent-based simulations approximate population-based simulations, which would indicate that agent-based simulation just can be replaced by population-based simulation. The paper evaluates this assumption by a detailed comparative case study in epidemics.
  31. * Jaffry, S. W., Kayyani, U. R., FOSS Localization: A Solution for The ICT Dilemma of Developing Countries. In: Proceedings of 9th International IEEE MultiTopic Conference, (INMIC'05) , Karachi (Pakistan), December 24th - 25th 2005. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, pp. 1-5. DOI (preliminary version) Jaffry, S. W., Kayyani, U. R., FOSS Localization: A Solution for The ICT Dilemma of Developing Countries
    • Title: "FOSS Localization: A Solution for The ICT Dilemma of Developing Countries"
      Authors: Jaffry, S. W., Kayyani, U. R.

      Abstract
      Information and communication technology (ICT) has tremendously expanded over the last three decades making the access to right information at the right time feasible ensuring the success of an individual, organization or culture. In order to make the most out of this exciting revolution one must be in a position to afford and completely comprehend what is offered by this technology. Unfortunately most of the software are controlled by proprietary that are economically unaffordable for developing countries and are based on language that is not comprehendible by their masses. Software localization of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) is an effort that addresses this twofold dilemma. FOSS made software affordable while localization bridges the language barrier that helps people to fully comprehend and utilize the benefits of ICT. In this research we have explored various aspects of the software localization of free and open source operating system (FOSOS) and developed a working prototype. Paper explains concept and all the technical steps of FOSS localization of Ubuntu Linux that is a FOSOS with a foreseeable future work.
  32. * Jaffry, S. W., Pedagogical Pattern Language for in Time Student Confidence in Studied Material. In: Proceeding of 9th International IEEE MultiTopic Conference, (INMIC'05) , Karachi (Pakistan), December 24th - 25th 2005. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, pp. 1-6. DOI (preliminary version) Jaffry, S. W., Pedagogical Pattern Language for in Time Student Confidence in Studied Material
    • Title: "Pedagogical Pattern Language for in Time Student Confidence in Studied Material"
      Authors: Jaffry, S. W.

      Abstract
      Over the past few years, importing design patterns from software engineering to the computer science education (CSE) is followed by defining patterns and pattern languages suitable for pedagogical needs of Computer Science courses. The main goal of patterns incorporation in CSE was to enhance quality of content delivery and comprehension. However it is observed that soon after learning a concept most of the students are not certain about the degree of command over the studied material. Lack of questioning power makes it more devastating. The existing pattern-based materials seem to be insufficient for settling these problems. Hence there is a requirement of pedagogical pattern language that have twofold power of resolving these issues. This paper presents a pedagogical pattern language based on three newly discovered pedagogical patterns to address in time students confidence in their level of comprehension about learned skills.
  33. * Idrees, M., Yousaf, M. M., Jaffry, S. W., Pasha, M. A., Hussain, S. A., Enhancements in AODV Routing Using Mobility Aware Agents. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies, (ICET'05), Islamabad (Pakistan), September 16th - 17th 2005. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, pp. 98-102. DOI (preliminary version) Idrees, M., Yousaf, M. M., Jaffry, S. W.,  Pasha, M. A., Hussain, S. A., Enhancements in AODV Routing Using Mobility Aware Agents
    • Title: "Enhancements in AODV Routing Using Mobility Aware Agents"
      Authors: Idrees, M., Yousaf, M. M., Jaffry, S. W.,  Pasha, M. A., Hussain, S. A.

      Abstract
      In infrastructure-less mobile and ad-hoc networks the routes have to be refreshed oftenly due to the mobility of the nodes acting as routers. If a node is aware of the mobility of neighboring nodes, the highly mobile node can be avoided to be the part of routes and ultimately reduces the re-route discoveries. This paper introduces mobility aware agents in ad-hoc network nodes and modifies HELLO packets of the AODV protocol to enhance mobility awareness. Mobility aware agent can update its awareness through inquiry and reply to inquiries about neighbors on quasi-periodic bases. On receiving the HELLO packet with GPS coordinates of the originator, agent compares them with previous ones and hence has awareness about the mobility of the originator with reference to itself. The enhancements in the throughput of the network are studied through simulation in OPNET that has shown optimistic results.
  34. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Modeling Dynamics of Relative Trust of Competitive Information Agents. In: Klusch, M., Pechoucek, M., Polleres, A. (eds.), Proc. of the 12th International Workshop on Cooperative Information Agents, (CIA'08), Prague, (Czech Republic), September 10th - 12th, 2008. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, vol. 5180, Springer Verlag, 2008, pp. 55-70. DOI (preliminary version) Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Modeling Dynamics of Relative Trust of Competitive Information Agents
    • Title: "Modeling Dynamics of Relative Trust of Competitive Information Agents."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.

      Abstract
      In order for personal assistant agents in an ambient intelligence context to provide good recommendations, or pro-actively support humans in task allocation, a good model of what the human prefers is essential. One aspect that can be considered to tailor this support to the preferences of humans is trust. This measurement of trust should incorporate the notion of relativeness since a personal assistant agent typically has a choice of advising substitutable options. In this paper such a model for relative trust is presented, whereby a number of parameters can be set that represent characteristics of a human.

    Extended Abstract and Poster

  35. Both, F., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry. S.W., Lambalgen, R. van, Oorburg, R., Sharpanskykh, A., Treur, J., and Vos, M. de, Validation of an Agent Model for Human Work Pressure (Poster). Presented at the 9th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, (ICCM'09), Manchester, (United Kingdom), July 24th - 26th, 2009. Both, F., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry. S.W., Lambalgen, R. van, Oorburg, R., Sharpanskykh, A., Treur, J., and Vos, M. de, Validation of an Agent Model for Human Work Pressure.
    • Title: "Validation of an Agent Model for Human Work Pressure."
      Authors: Both, F., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry. S.W., Lambalgen, R. van, Oorburg, R., Sharpanskykh, A., Treur, J., and Vos, M. de,

      Abstract
      Human performance can seriously degrade under demanding tasks. To improve performance, agents can reason about the current state of the human, and give the most appropriate and effective support. To enable this, the agent needs a work pressure model, which should be valid, as the agent might otherwise give inappropriate advice and even worsen performance. This paper concerns the validation of an existing work pressure model. First, human experiments have been designed and conducted, whereby measurements related to the model have been performed. Next, this data has been used to obtain appropriate parameter settings for the work pressure model, describing the specific subject. Finally, the work pressure model, with the tailored parameter settings, has been used to predict human behavior to investigate predictive capabilities of the model. The results have been analyzed using formal verification.
  36. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Parameter Estimation for Human Trust in Information Sources (Poster). Presented at Workshop on Parameter Estimation for Dynamical Systems (PEDS'09), Eindhoven, (The Netherlands), June 8th - 10th, 2009. Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Parameter Estimation for Human Trust in Information Sources.
    • Title: "Parameter Estimation for Human Trust in Information Sources."
      Authors: Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.,

      Abstract
      In this paper, an approach has been presented to learn parameters of a given trust model based upon observed experiences of a human. This approach has been introduced to enable a personal assistant agent to take such human trust into account when giving advice. Hereby, an existing trust model has been taken as a basis. Several methods have been used to enable learning of these parameters, including exhaustive search, Simulated Annealing, bisection, and an extended form of bisection. The process is adaptive in the sense that new experiences can come in, and are taking into consideration by finding the most appropriate parameter setting. The algorithms have been rigorously tested for various cases, and the results thereof have been analyzed using formal verification techniques. The results show that the computation time of the exhaustive search scales up worst, whereas the Simulated Annealing approach scales up best. When looking at the accuracy however, the inverse is true: exhaustive search finds the most accurate point, whereas Simulated Annealing sometimes only comes up with poor solutions. The bisection, and the more advanced extended bisection approach are right in the middle: They do have a higher accuracy and are computationally less expensive. The choice of which method to choose ultimately depends on the domain. For particular domains a higher computation time might be acceptable as long as the results are good, whereas in other more time critical domain speed could be a necessity. In this respect, the bisection approaches are a good combination of both worlds.
  37. Bosse, T., Gerritsen, C., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Agent-Based and Population-Based Simulation of Displacement of Crime (extended abstract). In: Ghallab, M. (ed.), Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (ECAI'08), Patras, (Greece), July 21st - 25th, 2008. IOS Press, 2008, pp. 877-878. DOI (preliminary version) Bosse, T., Gerritsen, C., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J., Agent-Based and Population-Based Simulation of Displacement of Crime
    • Title: "Agent-Based and Population-Based Simulation of Displacement of Crime."
      Authors: Bosse, T., Gerritsen, C., Hoogendoorn, M., Jaffry, S.W., and Treur, J.

      Abstract
      Within Criminology, the process of crime displacement is usually explained by referring to the interaction of three types of agents: criminals, passers-by, and guardians. Most existing simulation models of this process are agent-based. However, when the number of agents considered becomes large, population-based simulation has computational advantages over agent-based simulation. This paper presents both an agent-based and a population-based simulation model of crime displacement, and reports a comparative evaluation of the two models. In addition, an approach is put forward to analyse the behaviour of both models by means of formal techniques.